Cell surface mechanics.(A) Illustration of the three main forces regulating the cell surface mechanics: adhesion-driven tension, cortical tension and pressure. Adhesion is described as a constant tension J along the surface (green arrows). The cortical tension is described by an elastic tension with equilibrium length P and elasticity constant of λ
(orange spring). (B) The interfacial tension is defined as the altogether adhesion-driven and cortical tensions. (C) Deformations away from the cell’s target area A generates a pressure Π (white arrows).